Since working with wood and stone, humanity has learned to process and synthesize a wide range of different materials. Metallurgical advancements allowed for the processing of bronze, iron and steel. Early alchemists performed simple chemistry tasks such as fermentation and extraction. Despite these early advancements, chemistry emerged as a separate formal discipline in 1661 with Robert Boyle's The Sceptical Chymist. 18th century developments in chemistry led to numerous advancements in medicine and other applied areas. With the industrial revolution of the 19th century, however, the need arose to scale up material and chemical reactions for large-scale purposes, and materials engineering and chemical engineering were born. The 20th century saw further expansion into the industrial use of artificial plastic and fossil fuels, as well as the development of magnetic recording media, piezoelectric devices, superconductors and nanotechnology.
- Biological & biomedical materials - materials evolving from biological structures
- Composite materials - often called simply composites, materials composed of two or more constituent materials with significantly different characteristics which maintain their distinctiveness when combined
- Compounds - Compounds are substances containing two or more elements, including various silicon, gallium and lead compounds
- Conductivity & superconductivity - Topics related to electrical conductivity, including semiconductors, superconductors and current
- Crystalline materials - solid materials whose constituent atoms are arranged in an orderly and repeating pattern in three dimensions
- Dielectrics - Electrical insulators which can be polarized
- Electric breakdown - Topics dealing with the reduction of resistance in an insulator, including discharges, sparks and flashover
- Elements - Chemical elements including carbon, hydrogen and roentgenium
- Films - thin chemical coverings applied to a material's surface
- Fluids - substances that continually deform under applied pressure, composing both liquids and gases
- Insulation - Insulators are materials which resist the flow of electrical current
- Material storage - Storage of materials such as fuel and water
- Materials science and technology - Various topics dealing with the science of materials including chemical analysis, separation processes and filtration
- Media - Media used in the sense of materials used to store and deliver information
- Metals - Metals tend to be excellent conductors of electricity and are an invaluable component of electrical engineering
- Metamaterials - artificial materials engineered to have properties that may not be found in nature, often used in producing optic materials
- Nanotechnology - The science and study of creating and manipulating objects on an atomic scale
- Oils - a substance that is liquid at normal temperatures but does not mix with water
- Photoconducting materials - materials that become more electrically conductive due to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation
- Polymers - a large molecule composed of repeating structural units
- Resins - the hydrocarbon secretion of some plants, usually conifers, which can produce varnishes, adhesives and other products
- Ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control - Sciences pertaining to the generation, transmission, and detection of ultrasonic waves and related phenomena, medical ultrasound and associated technologies, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and piezomagnetic materials, frequency generation and control, timing, and time coordination and distribution
This category has the following 22 subcategories, out of 22 total.
Pages in category "Materials"
The following 205 pages are in this category, out of 205 total.