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Archives:A History of Electronic Entertainment

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Contents

Abstract

This book surveys the accomplishments of a field of engineering that has undergone massive changes since the end of World War II. Not simply a history of inventions, A History of Entertainment Electronics delves into the political controversies and social upheavals surrounding such technologies as television, sound recording, and video games.

By David L. Morton

© 1999 by the IEEE History Center

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, not may it be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form without written permission from the Publisher.

This monograph was supported in part by a generous grant from the IEEE Life Members Committee Design and layout by Anne Reifsnyder for Aries/PS

ISBN 0-7803-9936-6

IEEE History Center The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. and Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey 39 Union Street New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8538 732-932-1066 fax: 732-932-1193

Citation and Link

David L. Morton, A History of Electronic Entertainment, (New York: IEEE Press, 1999).

A History of Electronic Entertainment

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Radio Broadcasting

INTRODUCTION 1
"Standard" Broadcasting, Wired Radio, and Short-wave 1
The Introduction of PM Service 4
PM in the United States 5
Stereo: PM Triumph and AM Frustration 7
Pirate Radio 8
Technical Change in Radio: The Impact of Television 9
The Tape Recorder in Studio Production 10
The Radio Receiver 12
The Transistor 13

Chapter 2 Television Broadcasting

INTRODUCTION 15
The Great International TV Standards Wars 15
Television Standards in the U .5. : The Dispute over UHF 19
Changes in Broadcasting Technologies: The Legacy of World War II 19
Transmitters and Transmission 20
National Differences in Television Broadcasting Techniques 21
Video Recording in the Television Studio 22
The Battle for Color TV in the U.S. 24
New Receiver Technologies 25
Television Receiver Production 26
Technological Alternatives to the Networks: Subscription and Cable Television 28
Another Alternative: Direct Satellite Television 28
Satellite TV and DBS in the U.S. 30
THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF TELEVISION 31
Hollywood and Television 31
The Critique of the Mass Media 33

Chapter 3 Hi-Fi and the Entertainment Electronics Revolution

HIGH FIDELITY IN THE HOME 35
Setting the Stage for High Fidelity 35
The Introduction of Stereo Recordings 38
Home-Built Equipment 39
Tubes Versus Transistors 40
HOME RECORDING, THE WALKMAN, AND THE DIGITAL REVOLUTION 41
Home Magnetic Tape Recording 41
Piracy, Counterfeiting, and Bootlegging 46
Portable Audio Technologies 49
The Digital Revolution 50

Chapter 4 The Diversification of Home Entertainment Systems

HOME VIDEO 51
From Audio to Video Tape Recording 51
Format Wars: Beta Versus VHS 54
The VCR as an Alternative Form of Program Distribution 56
VIDEO GAMES 57